Appendix C
The GNU Lesser General Public License, version 2.1

Version 2.1, February 1999

Copyright  1991, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

[This is the first released version of the Lesser GPL. It also counts as the successor of the GNU Library Public License version 2, hence the version number 2.1.]


The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public Licenses are intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change Free Software—to make sure the software is free for all its users.

This license, the Lesser General Public License, applies to some specially designated software packages—typically libraries—of the Free Software Foundation and other authors who decide to use it. You can use it too, but we suggest you first think carefully about whether this license or the ordinary General Public License is the better strategy to use in any particular case, based on the explanations below.

When we speak of Free Software, we are referring to freedom of use, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of Free Software (and charge for this service if you wish); that you receive source code or can get it if you want it; that you can change the software and use pieces of it in new Free programs; and that you are informed that you can do these things.

To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid distributors to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender these rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the library or if you modify it.

For example, if you distribute copies of the library, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that we gave you. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. If you link other code with the library, you must provide complete object files to the recipients, so that they can relink them with the library after making changes to the library and recompiling it. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.

We protect your rights with a two-step method: (1) we copyright the library, and (2) we offer you this license, which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the library.

To protect each distributor, we want to make it very clear that there is no warranty for the Free library. Also, if the library is modified by someone else and passed on, the recipients should know that what they have is not the original version, so that the original author’s reputation will not be affected by problems that might be introduced by others.

Finally, software patents pose a constant threat to the existence of any Free program. We wish to make sure that a company cannot effectively restrict the users of a Free program by obtaining a restrictive license from a patent holder. Therefore, we insist that any patent license obtained for a version of the library must be consistent with the full freedom of use specified in this license.

Most GNU software, including some libraries, is covered by the ordinary GNU General Public License. This license, the GNU Lesser General Public License, applies to certain designated libraries, and is quite different from the ordinary General Public License. We use this license for certain libraries in order to permit linking those libraries into non-Free programs.

When a program is linked with a library, whether statically or using a shared library, the combination of the two is legally speaking a combined work, a derivative of the original library. The ordinary General Public License therefore permits such linking only if the entire combination fits its criteria of freedom. The Lesser General Public License permits more lax criteria for linking other code with the library.

We call this license the “Lesser” General Public License because it does Less to protect the user’s freedom than the ordinary General Public License. It also provides other Free Software developers Less of an advantage over competing non-Free programs. These disadvantages are the reason we use the ordinary General Public License for many libraries. However, the Lesser license provides advantages in certain special circumstances.

For example, on rare occasions, there may be a special need to encourage the widest possible use of a certain library, so that it becomes a de-facto standard. To achieve this, non-Free programs must be allowed to use the library. A more frequent case is that a Free library does the same job as widely used non-Free libraries. In this case, there is little to gain by limiting the Free library to Free Software only, so we use the Lesser General Public License.

In other cases, permission to use a particular library in non-Free programs enables a greater number of people to use a large body of Free software. For example, permission to use the GNU C Library in non-Free programs enables many more people to use the whole GNU operating system, as well as its variant, the GNU/Linux operating system.

Although the Lesser General Public License is Less protective of the users’ freedom, it does ensure that the user of a program that is linked with the library has the freedom and the wherewithal to run that program using a modified version of the library.

The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow. Pay close attention to the difference between a “work based on the library” and a “work that uses the library.” The former contains code derived from the library, whereas the latter must be combined with the library in order to run.

GNU Lesser General Public License
Terms and Conditions For Copying, Distribution and Modification


This License Agreement applies to any software library or other program which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder or other authorized party saying it may be distributed under the terms of this Lesser General Public License (also called “this License”). Each licensee is addressed as “you.”

A “library” means a collection of software functions and/or data prepared so as to be conveniently linked with application programs (which use some of those functions and data) to form executables.

The “library,” below, refers to any such software library or work which has been distributed under these terms. A “work based on the library” means either the library or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the library or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated straightforwardly into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term “modification.”)

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You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the library’s complete source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty; and distribute a copy of this License along with the library.

You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.


You may modify your copy or copies of the library or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the library, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:


The modified work must itself be a software library.


You must cause the files modified to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.


You must cause the whole of the work to be licensed at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this License.

If a facility in the modified library refers to a function or a table of data to be supplied by an application program that uses the facility, other than as an argument passed when the facility is invoked, then you must make a good faith effort to ensure that, in the event an application does not supply such function or table, the facility still operates, and performs whatever part of its purpose remains meaningful.

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These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the library, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the library, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.

Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the library.

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A program that contains no derivative of any portion of the library, but is designed to work with the library by being compiled or linked with it, is called a “work that uses the library.” Such a work, in isolation, is not a derivative work of the library, and therefore falls outside the scope of this License.

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When a “work that uses the library” uses material from a header file that is part of the library, the object code for the work may be a derivative work of the library even though the source code is not. Whether this is true is especially significant if the work can be linked without the library, or if the work is itself a library. The threshold for this to be true is not precisely defined by law.

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As an exception to the Sections above, you may also combine or link a “work that uses the library” with the library to produce a work containing portions of the library, and distribute that work under terms of your choice, provided that the terms permit modification of the work for the customer’s own use and reverse engineering for debugging such modifications.

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You may place library facilities that are a work based on the library side-by-side in a single library together with other library facilities not covered by this License, and distribute such a combined library, provided that the separate distribution of the work based on the library and of the other library facilities is otherwise permitted, and provided that you do these two things:


Accompany the combined library with a copy of the same work based on the library, uncombined with any other library facilities. This must be distributed under the terms of the Sections above.


Give prominent notice with the combined library of the fact that part of it is a work based on the library, and explaining where to find the accompanying uncombined form of the same work.


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This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.


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The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the Lesser General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

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No Warranty


Because the library is licensed free of charge, there is no warranty for the library, to the extent permitted by applicable law. Except when otherwise stated in writing the copyright holders and/or other parties provide the library \as iswithout warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The entire risk as to the quality and performance of the library is with you. should the library prove defective, you assume the cost of all necessary servicing, repair or correction.


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End of Terms and Conditions

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Libraries

If you develop a new library, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, we recommend making it Free Software that everyone can redistribute and change. You can do so by permitting redistribution under these terms (or, alternatively, under the terms of the ordinary General Public License).

To apply these terms, attach the following notices to the library. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

one line to give the library’s name and a brief idea of what it does.
Copyright (C) year name of author

This library is Free Software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the library, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:

Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
‘Gnomovision’ (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.

signature of Ty Coon, 1 April 1990
Ty Coon, President of Vice